Henrico County Public Schools


US History I

BY: Judith Viorst
You asked me to do it.
I promised to do it.
I planned to do it.
I started to do it.
I really meant to do it.
Except I forgot.
Couldn't I get some credit?
For promising,
And really meaning to do it?

Guess not.



U.S. History: Beginnings to 1865
Grade 6 SOL

Continents & Oceans Regions Bodies of Water | Geography
Archaeology | First Americans Early Explorers Mali, Ghana, Songhai
Colonies Important People of the Revolution Revolutionary Events
How We Won the Revolution Articles of Confederation 3 Branches of Government
The First 5 Presidents New Territories New Inventions
Abolitionist/Suffragists Secession Civil War Leaders/Battles
Effects of the War

1. Continents: large land masses surrounded by water (there are 7 on Earth-- can you name them?)

2. Indentured Servants: people who didn't have money for the trip to the colonies-- they agreed to work without pay for the person that paid their way; they were free at the end of their contract

3. Slaves: Africans who were captured and then shipped to the colonies to be sold into slavery; they had no rights and were owned as property for life

4. Articles of Confederation: a constitution written during the American Revolution to establish the powers of the new national government Federal System of Government: a system that divides powers between national government and the government of the states

5. Abolitionists: people who worked to end slavery

6. Suffrage: the right to vote

7. Virginia Plan: a document written by James Madison, which called for 3 separate branches of government-- Legislative Branch, Judicial Branch, and Executive Branch

USI. 2a [Return to Top]

The 5 Oceans

7 Continents:

1. North America - Brown

2. South America - Green

3. Africa - Pink

4. Europe - Orange

5. Asia - Blue

6 Antarctica - Purple



USI. 2b [Return to Top]

North American Regions

Geographic Regions have different characteristics. Here are the Regions of North America:

Coastal Plain, Appalachian Highlands, Interior Lowlands, Canadian Shield, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, Coastal Range.

8 U.S. Regions
Physical Characteristics
Coastal Plain
Located along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
Broad lowland with many excellent harbors
Appalachian Highlands
Located west of the Coastal Plain; extends from eastern Canada to western Alabama; includes the Piedmont Region of Virginia
Old, eroded mountains-- the oldest mountain range in North America
Canadian Shield
Wraps around the Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape
Its hills are worn by erosion and hundreds of its lakes are carved by glaciers.
Interior Lowlands
Located west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Great Plains
Rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills
Great Plains
Located west of the Interior Lowlands and east of the Rocky Mountains
Flat land that gradually increases in elevation as you go west; it contains grasslands
Rocky Mountains
Located west of the Great plains and east of the Basin and Range
Rugged mountains stretching from Alaska almost to Mexico with high elevations; also contains the Continental Divide, which determines the flow of rivers
Basin and Range
Located west of the Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Cascade Mountains
Contains some tall mountains but also Death Valley, which is the lowest point in North America
Coastal Range
Rugged mountains along the Pacific Coast that stretch from California to Canada
Contains fertile valleys

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Bodies of Water
Major Bodies of Water:

Trade, Transportation, Settlement:

Oceans: Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean

Rivers: Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence

Gulf: The Gulf of Mexico

Lakes: The Great Lakes-- Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Eerie, Lake Ontario

Great Lakes map

The location of the United States (with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts) has given access to the rest of the world

The Atlantic Ocean served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants

The Ohio River was the gateway to the west

Cities began to develop in the Midwest along the Great Lakes

St. Lawrence River forms part of the northeastern border with Canada and connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.

The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were the transportation routes for farm and industrial products. They were also links to the rest of the world.

The Columbia River was explored by Lewis and Clark

The Colorado River was explored by the Spanish

The Rio Grande forms the border with Mexico

The Pacific Ocean was an early exploration route

The Gulf of Mexico allowed the French and Spanish to explore Mexico and other parts of America

USI. 2d [Return to Top]

Key Geographic Features
Water Related
1. Lakes
2. Rivers
3. Tributaries
4. Gulfs and Bays
Land Related
1. Mountains
2. Hills
3. Plains
4. Plateaus
5. Islands
6. Peninsulas

Geographic features are related to:

- Patterns of trade
- Locations of cities and towns
- Westward (frontier) movement
- Agriculture and fishing industries

USI. 3a and b [Return to Top]

Archaeologists study human behavior and culture through the recovery and analysis of artifacts.
Scientists are not in agreement as to when and how people entered the Western Hemisphere.
Cactus Hill is located on the Nottoway River in southeastern Virginia.
Evidence that humans lived at Cactus Hill as early as 15,000 years ago makes it one of the oldest sites in North America.

Native American

*The American Indians were the first people to live in North America.
*These First Americans lived in different areas.
*They fished, hunted, and harvested crops for food.
*Clothing was made from animal skins and plants.
*Shelter was made from resources found in their environment, such as sod, stones, animal skins, and wood.


The First Americans
Area Where They Lived
Characteristics of the Area
Food and Natural Resources
Alaska and Northern Canada (Arctic Region)
Arctic area where the temperature is below freezing most of the year
-snow or stone houses in winter (igloos)
-tents made of animal skins in summer

-dog sle

Pacific Northwest Coast (Northwest Coast Region)
rainy, mild climate
longhouses made of wood
The Great Plains, which is the interior of the United States (Great Plains Region)
dry grassland
tepees made of animal skins
Southwest United States in present-day New Mexico and Arizona (Southwest Region)
desert areas and areas that border cliffs and mountains
adobes made of dried mud or clay


Northeast North America in the Eastern Woodland (Eastern Woodlands Region)
many forests
longhouses made of wood

Members of these tribes live in their homelands and in many areas of North America today.

USI. 4a and b [Return to Top]

Early European Explorers

There were several reasons why they wanted to explore the New World:
1) Economic Reasons: they wanted to find gold, natural resources, and to trade
2) Religious Reasons: they wanted to spread Christianity
3) Competition: they wanted to own more land than anyone else and believed their culture was best

But, there were problems...
1) they had poor maps and navigational tools
2) there was little food and many became sick or died from starvation or disease
3) they were afraid of what was over in the New World, since no one had been before
4) they did not have appropriate supplies

Some explorers achieved great things from exploring the New World:
1) they exchanged goods and ideas
2) they were able to improve navigational tools and ships
3) they claimed new territories

European Country (Sponsor)
Regions Explored
Relationship with the American Indians
Coronado's route
Francisco Coronado claimed southwest United States

Conquered American Indians and made them slaves; brought Christianity to the New World, but also brought over European Diseases

Champlain's route

Samuel de Champlain established Quebec;





Robert La Salle claimed the Mississippi River Valley

Established trading posts and spread Christian religion
Cabot's routes
John Cabot explored eastern Canada
Established settlements and claimed land; learned farming techniques and traded with the First Americans

Sometimes there was cooperation between the Explorers and the Native Americans:
1) Technologies-- they shared knowledge about transporting weapons and farm tools
2) They traded with one another
3) Native Americans taught the Explorers a great deal about crops

But at other times, there was conflict:
1) Who owned the land?
2) They competed for trade
3) There were many differences between European and Native American cultures
4) Disease was brought over by the Explorers
5) They spoke different languages, so communication was very difficult

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Mali, Ghana, Songhai

These ancient empires became powerful by controlling trade in West Africa.
Each empire dominated West Africa at certain times from 300 to 1600 A.D.
The Portuguese people carried goods from Europe to West African empires.
They traded metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods for GOLD.

GHANA was the first great African empire of the western Sudan. Ghana became known for its rich culture, wealth, organization, and power. Ghana became very rich because of the "salt-gold trade" between West and North Africa. This trade was very important, and Ghana came to control not only gold and salt, but also the trade routes that went through their land. Since gold and salt were both so valuable, the mines were kept secret! Most of the trading was done in a way called "silent barter." This meant that traders swapped gold, salt, and other objects without ever meeting in person! The king of Ghana collected taxes from all of the traders that traveled through Ghana. He also kept the gold nuggets for himself during trade (traders used the gold dust). Ghana became very rich and powerful and thrived until the mid 1200's. It started losing power when Muslim raiders began attacking the empire, since they wanted control of the salt-gold trade. The Muslims also wanted the people of Ghana to convert to their religion of Islam. Ghana fought the Muslims for more than 30 years, but the empire began to break apart into smaller provinces. A new and more powerful empire rose in Ghana's place. It was called MALI!

The empire of MALI was founded in the mid 1200's and lasted through the late 1400's. A man named Sundiata earned the title "Lion King of Mali." In his lifetime, he turned Mali into a rich empire because of the salt/gold trade. Another king of Mali was named Mansa Musa. Under his rule, the capital city of Timbuktu became a center of learning for scholars throughout Africa. Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage, or a long trip, to a place called Mecca. This trip is one of the most famous and well documented ones in history. Mali continued to grow in size, but it became difficult to control. After Mansa Musa's death, his son, Maghan, took control of the Mali empire. Warriors later attacked Timbuktu and buildings were destroyed. Mali continued to be an empire for another 200 years, but its Golden Age was over. A new empire replaced Mali as the most powerful trading empire in West Africa. It was called SONGHAI!

SONGHAI became powerful as a man named Ali-Ber ruled the empire. He helped expand the empire by conquering Timbuktu and then spreading in all directions to capture the remaining parts of the former Mali empire. Each conquered area was divided into 5 large provinces, which each had its own governor, courts, and army to make sure people paid taxes. Songhai became the most well-organized empire in ancient West Africa. Songhai grew rich like Ghana and Mali by controlling trade routes across the Sahara Desert. But the Songhai empire did not last long. Moroccan soldiers attacked the empire with guns while the people of Songhai fought with swords. The great Songhai empire was brought to an end by this fighting, drought, and disease. The Songhai empire was then divided into small states and trade routes were still used, even though the empire was no longer in power. Warfare continued in this region for many years and the area became very weak because of the fighting. No other nation in West Africa was able to achieve the greatness of the empires of Ghana, Mali, or Songhai!

USI. 5a-c [Return to Top]

Colonial America
13 Colonies
Why It Was Established
It was an economic venture-- the 1st permanent English settlement in North America was Jamestown Settlement and it was an economic venture by the Virginia Company
It was settled by separatists (Pilgrims) from the Church of England who wanted to belong to other churches
This colony was settled by the Puritans because they wanted to worship as they pleased
This was settled by the Quakers, who wanted to have freedom to practice their faith without interference
This colony was settled by people who had been in prisons in England (Debtors). The settlers hoped to experience a new life in the colony and to experience economic freedom in the new world.

Take a 13 Colonies Quiz here!

Life In The Colonies
Social Life
Political & Civil Life
New England

~Appalachian Mts., Boston Harbor, hilly terrain, rocky soil, jagged coastline

~moderate summers, cold winters

~fishing, shipbuilding industry & naval supplies, trade & port cities

~skilled craftsman, shopkeepers

~viewed the village and church as center of life
~had town meetings

~Appalachian Mts., coastal lowlands (harbors & bays, wide & deep rivers), rich farmlands

~moderate climate

~livestock and grain, trading

~many people were unskilled & skilled workers or fisherman

~villages and cities

~people had a variety of different lifestyles

~many different religions

~had market towns
~Appalachian Mts., Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors, rivers
~humid climate

~large farms/plantations, cash crops, wood products, small farms


~had plantations, mansions, indentured servants, few cities and few schools

~Church of England was most popular

~had counties

Different People and Perspectives
Large Landowners:
* lived mostly in the South
* relied on indentured servants and/or slaves for labor
*were educated in some cases
*had rich social culture

*worked the land according to the region
*relied on family members for labor

*worked as craftsmen in towns and on the plantation
*lived in small villages and cities

*worked as caretakers, house workers, homemakers
*could not vote
*had few chances for education
Indentured Servants:
*consisted of men and women who didn't have enough money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage
*were free at the end of their contract
*were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders, then were shipped to the colonies when they were sold into slavery
*were owned as property for life with no rights
*were often born into slavery (children of slaves were born into slavery)

USI. 5d [Return to Top]

England's Control Over the Colonies

Economic Control:
*England tried to strictly control trade
*England taxed the colonies after the French and Indian War
*Colonies traded raw materials for goods


Political Control:
*Colonists had to obey English laws that were made by governors
*Colonial governors were appointed by the king or by the proprietor
*Colonial legislatures made laws for each colony and were monitored by colonial governors

WHY did England want so much control over the colonies? Their reasons were...
1) England wanted to remain powerful in the world
2) England imposed taxes, such as the Stamp Act, to raise necessary money to pay the cost of the French and Indian War

WHY did England impose so many taxes? They said it was because...
1) To help finance the French and Indian War
2) To help pay to keep English troops in the colonies

WHY were the colonists upset with England wanting so much control??
1) they had no representation in Parliament
2) some colonists did not like colonial governors having so much power
3) England wanted to have strict control over colonial legislatures
4) the colonies were against taxes
5) The Proclamation of 1763 got in the way of settlers' western movement

USI. 6b [Return to Top]

Declaration of Independence
Signing the Declaration of Independence
Colonists had many new political ideas. They wanted to be free from England's power (independence) and wanted a democratic government in the American colonies.

Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, a document which demanded independence from England.
Some key points stated in the Declaration of Independence were:
1) people have "certain unalienable rights" (they can't be taken away) including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
2) people establish their own government to protect these rights
3) government gets its power from the people
4) people have a right and a duty to change a government that violates these rights

USI. 6c [Return to Top]

Key Individuals in the American Revolution

King George II
King George III:

King of England during the Revolutionary period

Lord Cornwallis
Lord Cornwallis:

British General who surrendered to the Patriots at Yorktown
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson:

Main author of the Declaration of Independence
John Adams
John Adams:

very active in the push for independence
George Washington
George Washington:

Commander of the Continental Army
Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry:

Outspoken member of the House of Burgesses; inspired patriotism with his "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine:

Journalist and author of Common Sense
Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley:

A former slave who wrote poems and plays supporting independence
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin:

Major member of the Continental Congress; helped organize the Declaration of Independence
Paul Revere
Paul Revere:

A patriot who made a risky ride to warn colonists that "The British are coming".

USI. 6c cont. [Return to Top]

Major Events to the Revolution
Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre:

Colonists in Boston were shot after taunting British soldiers
Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party:

Samuel Adams and Paul Revere led patriots in throwing tea into the Boston Harbor to protest taxes on tea
Continental Congress
First Continental Congress:

Delegates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with England and to push for independence
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Battle of Lexington and Concord:

This was the site of the 1st armed conflict of the Revolutionary War
Declaration of Independence
Approval of the Declaration of Independence:

Colonies declared their independence from England with this powerful document (it was signed on July 4, 1776)
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga:

Americans won this battle against England, causing the turning point in the war
Surrender at Yorktown
Surrender at Yorktown:

This was the colonial victory over England's General Lord Cornwallis and his troops, causing him to surrender and end the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris
Signing of the Treaty of Paris:

England accepted America's independence by signing this document

The Continental Army:
No one probably predicted that the colonists would defeat the English
during the Revolutionary War.
General George Washington was commander and leader of the troops. The 14,000 soldiers wore no uniforms-- only their ordinary clothes. Not everyone had guns, but if they did, they were flintlock muskets, which could not shoot very far. Those without guns used spears and axes as weapons. Some of the soldiers had fought in the French and Indian War. The only way they knew how to fight was like the Native Americans-- in irregular lines and while hiding. The English army did not fight this way. The colonists had little training and had not even fought together as an army before, yet they went to war against the most powerful army in the world! Later, an officer even said, It is incredible that soldiers composed of men of every age, even children of fifteen, of whites and blacks, almost naked, unpaid, and rather poorly fed, can march so well and withstand fire so steadfastly.

USI. 6d [Return to Top]

HOW did the Continental Army win the Revolutionary War? Well, they had a few advantages, including:
1) The Colonists worked hard to defend their own land, principles, and beliefs
2) The Colonists had support from France and Spain
3) The Colonists had strong leadership

USI. 7a [Return to Top]

Articles of Confederation

Once the Revolutionary War was over, America established a new national government.
The Articles of Confederation was a constitution written during the American Revolution to establish the new nation's powers.
There were, however, some Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation:

1) They provided for a weak national government
2) They gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states
3) The Articles of Confederation did not provide a national currency (money)
4) They gave each state only 1 vote in Congress no matter how big the state was
5) They did not provide for an Executive or Judicial Branch of Government

So now the people had a government that was too weak to work well. The confederation had 13 separate and independent states instead of one united nation. The British even called the nation the "Disunited States."

USI. 7b [Return to Top]

Representatives from 5 states got together and decided that the country needed a stronger national government. This meant that the Articles of Confederation had to be changed. They worked hard to develop a new set of rules-- the Constitution of the United States of America. The Constitution established a federal system of government that made the state and national governments share the power. This is how the government was separated in order to divide the power equally:

3 Branches of Government
Branch of Government
Legislative Branch (Congress)

~makes the laws
~it is a 2-house legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate
~allows all states to be represented equally (there are 2 senators for every state and the number of state's representatives is based on the state's population)

Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)
~determines if laws made by Congress are constitutional
Executive Branch (President)
~carries out the laws

These branches created Checks and Balances, meaning that each branch can check the power of the other. These checks keep any one branch from gaining too much power.

The states ratified, or accepted, the Constitution but shortly after, changes were made. These 10 amendments, or changes, are known as the Bill of Rights. They provide a written guarantee of an person's rights, such as the freedom of speech and the freedom of religion.
James Madison was the author of the Bill of Rights.

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Even though the national government of the United States of America was beginning to take shape, it doesn't mean there weren't conflicts. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had very different views on the role of the national government. As a result, 2 different political parties were created...

The Federalists
The Democratic Republicans

a) favored a strong national government
b) favored limits on the powers of the states
c) favored development of industry on a national scale
d) favored a national bank

*led by Alexander Hamilton

a) favored a weak national government
b) wanted the states to have power
c) favored small businesses and farmers
d) opposed a national bank

* led by Thomas Jefferson

USI. 7d [Return to Top]

The First 5 Presidents
1) George Washington
2) John Adams
3) Thomas Jefferson
4) James Madison
5) James Monroe


- established the Federal Court System

- 2 different political parties were formed (Federalists & Democratic Republicans)

- The Bill of Rights was added to the U.S. Constitution

- plans began to build the national capital in Washington, D.C. (Benjamin Bannekar, an African American astronomer and surveyor, helped design the plans)


- a 2-party system began during his administration








- he bought Louisiana from France (the Louisiana Purchase)

- Lewis and Clark explored this new land west of the Mississippi River






- The War of 1812 caused European nations to gain respect for the United States







- he introduced the Monroe Doctrine warning European nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere






USI. 8a and b [Return to Top]

Between 1801 and 1861, the United States grew in size because of exploration and expansion to new territories.

Territorial Expansion
Louisiana Purchase

* Jefferson bought land from France, which doubled the size of the United States

* In the Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean

* Spain gave Florida to the United States through a treaty



* Texas was added after it became an independent republic



* The Oregon Territory was divided by the United States and Great Britain



* War with Mexico resulted in California and the southwest territory becoming part of the United States


The Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
Moving to the Oregon Territory
Oregon Territory

Western movement became very popular for several reasons, mostly for geographic and economic ones:
1) the population in the eastern states kept growing and growing, making it crowded in some areas
2) there was plenty of cheap, fertile land out west
3) it was a great economic opportunity
(California Gold Rush, logging, farming, freedom for runaway slaves)
4) transportation was cheaper and faster
(they had rivers and canals-- Erie Canal-- and used steamboats)
5) to gain knowledge about the overland trails
(Oregon and Santa Fe)
6) people believed in "Manifest Destiny"-- the idea that expansion was for the good of the country and was the right of the country

USI. 8c [Return to Top]

New Inventions and Technologies
Characteristics and Impacts

- it was invented by Eli Whitney

- it increased the production of cotton, so it increased the need for slave labor to cultivate and pick the cotton

- Jo Anderson (a slave) and Cyrus McCormick worked to invent it

- it increased the productivity of the American farmer

The Steamboat

- it was improved by Robert Fulton

- it eventually provided faster river transportation that connected Southern plantations and farms to Northern industries and Western territories

The Steam Locomotive
Steam Locomotive
- it provided faster land transportation

USI. 8d [Return to Top]


The Abolitionist Movement
Most abolitionists demanded immediate freeing of the slaves
Abolitionists believed that slavery was wrong:
- it was morally wrong
- it was cruelly and inhumane
- it was a violation of the principles of democracy
Abolitionist Leaders included both men and women:
- Harriet Tubman
- William Lloyd Garrison
- Frederick Douglass


The Suffrage Movement
Supporters declared that "All men and women are created equal"
Supporters believed that women were deprived of basic rights:
- the right to vote
- educational opportunities, especially higher education
- equal opportunities in business
- rights to own property

The movement was led by strong women who began their campaign before the Civil War and continued after the war had ended. It included:
- Isabel Sojourner Truth
- Susan B. Anthony
- Elizabeth Cady Stanton

USI. 9a [Return to Top]

There were many differences between the Northern and Southern states that eventually resulted in the Civil War.

Differences That Divided A Nation
*The North believed that slavery should be abolished for moral reasons
*The South believed that the abolition of slavery would destroy their nation's economy

*The North was mainly an urban society where people had jobs
*The South was mostly an agricultural society where people lived in small villages and on farms or plantations

*The North was a manufacturing region and its people favored tariffs that protected factory owners and workers from foreign competition
*The South opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to rise. Planters were also concerned that England might stop buying cotton from the South if tariffs were added.
*The North believed that the national government's power was greater than that of the states
*The South believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal

The South feared that the North would take control of Congress, and Southerners began to proclaim states' rights as a mean of self-protection. The North believed that the nation was a union and could not be divided. While the Civil War did not begin as a war to get rid of slavery, issues surrounding slavery deeply divided the nation.
Several compromises were made to try and resolve the differences between the Northern and Southern states:

USI. 9b [Return to Top]

Missouri was a slave state and Maine was a free state
- California was a free state
- Southwest territories would decide about slavery
These states could enter the union with or without slavery--- the people decided the slavery issue ("popular sovereignty")

USI. 9c [Return to Top]


After Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th President of the United States, the South seceded, or withdrew, from the Union. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War. Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the Unites States was one nation that could not be separated or divided. Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union, so they could just as freely leave it








The Break Up
States that Seceded from the Union:
States Remaining in the Union:
~ Alabama
~ Arkansas
~ Florida
~ Georgia
~ Louisiana
~ Mississippi
~ North Carolina
~ South Carolina
~ Tennessee
~ Texas
~ Virginia

Border States (Slave States):

Free States:
~ Delaware
~ Kentucky
~ Maryland
~ Missouri
~ California
~ Connecticut
~ Illinois
~ Indiana
~ Iowa
~ Kansas
~ Maine
~ Massachusetts
~ Michigan
~ Minnesota
~ New Hampshire
~ New Jersey
~ New York
~ Ohio
~ Oregon
~ Pennsylvania
~ Rhode Island
~ Vermont
~ West Virginia
(Western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union)
~ Wisconsin

View a PowerPoint slideshow about the Civil War. If you don't have Powerpoint on your computer, download the FREE viewer here!

USI. 9d [Return to Top]

Civil War Leaders
~ was President of the United States
~ opposed the spread of slavery
~ issued the Emancipation Proclamation
~ determined to preserve the Union- by force if necessary
~ believed the United States was one nation, not a collection of independent states
~ wrote the Gettysburg Address that said the Civil War was to preserve a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people"
~ was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia (South)
~ was offered command of the Union forces at the beginning of the war but chose not to fight against Virginia
~ opposed seceding from the Union, but did not believe the union should be held together by force
~ urged Southerners to accept defeat at the end of the war and reunite Americans when some wanted to keep fighting
~ was president of the Confederate States of America
~ was a skilled Confederate general from Virginia
~ was general of the Union army (North) that defeated Lee
~ was a former slave who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist

USI. 9e [Return to Top]

Major Civil War Battles and Events
  1. Fort Sumter
  2. Bull Run
  3. Emancipation Proclamation
  4. Vicksburg
  5. Gettysburg
  6. Appomattox

    "Fat Boys Eat Very Good Always"

USI. 9f [Return to Top]

Effects of the Civil War
Families and friends were often pitted against one another
Southern troops became increasingly younger and more poorly equipped and clothed
Much of the South was devastated at the end of the war (Atlanta and Richmond were burned)
Disease was a major killer
Clara Barton, a Civil War nurse, created the American Red Cross Combat was brutal and often man-to-man Women were left to run businesses in the North and farms and plantations in the South The collapse of the Confederacy made Confederate money worthless


Effects of the Civil War on African Americans
They fought in both Confederate and Union Armies
The Confederacy often used slaves as naval crew members and soldiers
The Union moved to enlist African American sailors early in the war
African American soldiers were paid less than white soldiers
African American soldiers were discriminated against and served in segregated units under the command of white officers
Robert Smalls, a sailor and later a Union naval captain, was highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism. He became a Congressman after the Civil War.

*Special Thanks: Katie Tardiff, CCC-SLP