2003-2004 SOL Study GUIDE - World History to 1500 & Geography

Paleolithic Era to the Agricultural Revolution
2a  - Early Humans
The life of early hunter-gatherer societies was shaped by their physical environment.
* How did physical geography determine the lives of early humans?
Homo sapiens emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.
Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.
Early humans were hunters and gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals.

2b - Paleolithic Era
Early human societies, through the development of culture, began the process of overcoming the limits set by the physical environment.
* What were the characteristics of hunter gatherer societies?
Hunter-gatherer societies during the Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age)
• Were nomadic (migrated in search of food, water, shelter)
• Invented the first tools, including simple weapons
• Learned how to make fire
• Lived in clans
• Developed oral language
• Created “cave art”

2c - Neolithic Era
The beginning of settled agriculture (including permanent settlements) was a major step in the advance of civilization.
* How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities?
Societies during the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age)
• Developed agriculture
• Domesticated animals
• Used advanced tools
• Made pottery
• Developed weaving skills

2d - Archaeology
Archaeologists continue to find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives.
* How does archaeology provide knowledge of early human life and its changes?
Archaeologists study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts. Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifacts.
Stonehenge is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic and completed during the Bronze Age.

Ancient River Valley Civilizations
3a - Ancient Civilizations
During the New Stone Age, permanent settlements appeared in river valleys and around the Fertile Crescent. River valleys provided rich soil for crops, as well as protection from invasion.
* Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys?
* Where were the earliest civilizations located?
* When did these civilizations exist?
River valley civilizations (about 3500 to 500 B.C.)
• Egyptian civilization—Nile River Valley and Delta (Africa)
• Mesopotamian civilization—Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys (Southwest Asia)
• Indian civilization—Indus River Valley (South Asia)
• Chinese civilization—Huang He Valley (East Asia)
These river valleys offered rich soils for agriculture, and they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by nomadic peoples.
Other early civilizations (about 2000 to 500 B.C.)
• Hebrews settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley (part of Fertile Crescent in SouthwestAsia).
• Phoenicians settled along the Mediterranean coast (part of Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia).
• Kush was located on upper (southern) Nile River (Africa).

3b - Early Civilization Contributions
River valleys were the “Cradles of Civilization.” Early civilizations made major contributions to social, political, and economic progress.
* What were the social, political, and economic characteristics of early civilizations?
Development of social patterns
• Hereditary rulers (dynasties of kings, pharaohs)
• Rigid class system, where slavery was accepted
Development of political patterns
• World’s first states (city-states, kingdoms, empires)
• Centralized government (often based on religious authority)
Written law codes (Ten Commandments, Code of Hammurabi)
Development of economic patterns
• Metal tools and weapons (bronze, iron)
• Increasing agricultural surplus (better tools, plows, irrigation)
• Increasing trade along rivers and by sea (Phoenicians)
• Development of the world’s first cities
• Specialization of labor

3c - Religion
Religion was a major part of life in all early civilizations.
* What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?
Development of religious traditions
• Polytheism was practiced by most early civilizations.
• Monotheism was practiced by the Hebrews.

3d - Judaism
The monotheism of Abraham became the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—religions that changed the
world. The Hebrews were the first to become monotheists.
* What were essential beliefs of Judaism?
* How did Judaism influence Western civilization?
Origins of Judaism
• Abraham
• Moses
• Jerusalem
Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Judaism
• Belief in one God (monotheism)
• Torah, which contains written records and beliefs of Hebrews
• Ten Commandments, which state moral and religious conduct
Spread of Judaism
• Exile
• Diaspora

3e - Writing Forms
Language and writing were important cultural innovations.
* What forms of language and writing existed in early civilizations?
Language and writing
• Pictograms (earliest written symbols)
• Hieroglyphics (Egypt)
• Cuneiform (Sumer)
• Alphabet (Phoenicians)

Early Civilizations
4a - Persian Empire
Built on earlier Central Asian and Mesopotamian civilizations, Persia developed the largest empire in the world.
* How did Persia govern its empire?
Persians as rulers
• Tolerance of conquered peoples
• Development of imperial bureaucracy
• Zoroastrianism as a religion
• Road system

4b - Indian Civilization
Classical Indian civilization began in the Indus River Valley and spread to the Ganges River Valley, then through the Indian subcontinent. It continued with little interruption because of its
geographic location. The Indo-Aryan people invaded the area, creating a rigidly structured society (caste system) blended with native beliefs.  During the Golden Age of classical Indian culture, Indian people made significant contributions to world civilization.
* Why were physical geography and location important to the development of Indian civilization?
* What impact did the Aryans have on India?
* Why was the caste system central to Indian culture?
* What were the accomplishments of the Gupta dynasty?
Physical barriers such as the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean made invasion more difficult. Mountain passes in the Hindu Kush provided invasion routes into the Indian subcontinent. The Indus and Ganges were the most
important rivers in the Indian subcontinent.
Aryans (Indo-Aryans)
• Migration, assertion of dominance
• Rigid caste system (hereditary), which influenced all social
interactions and choices of occupations
Gupta empire
• Golden age of classical Indian culture
• Contributions—mathematics, new textiles, literature

4c - Hinduism
Hinduism was an important contribution of classical India.
Hinduism influenced Indian society and culture and is still practiced in India today.
* What are the characteristics of the Hindu religion?
* How did Hinduism influence Indian society and culture?
• Caste system in religious law based on occupations
• Belief in many forms of one major deity
• Reincarnation: Cycles of rebirth
• Karma: Future reincarnation based on present behavior
• Vedas and Upanishads: Sacred writings

4d - Buddhism
Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in a part of India that is in present-day Nepal. Buddhism became a major faith when Asoka sent missionaries throughout Asia.
* What are the characteristics of Buddhism?
* How did Buddhism spread?
• Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
• Four Noble Truths
• Eightfold Path to Enlightenment.  Asoka’s missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia.

4e & f - China
Classical China was centered on the Huang He (Yellow River) and was geographically isolated. Invaders entered China from the North. The Great Wall was built for China’s protection.
Chinese culture began around 1500 B.C. Of Chinese contributions to civilization, Confucianism and Taoism are among the most noted.
* Why was the Great Wall of China built?
* What were contributions of classical China to world civilization?
* Why were Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism important in the formation of Chinese culture?
Migratory invaders raided Chinese settlements from the North. The Great Wall was built by Qin Shi Huangdi as a line of defense against invasions. China was governed by a succession of ruling families called dynasties. Chinese rulers were considered divine, but they served under a Mandate of Heaven only as long as their rule was just.
The Silk Roads facilitated trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome.
Contributions of classical China
• civil service system
• paper
• porcelain
• silk
Contributions of Confucianism in forming the social order in China
• Belief that humans are good, not bad
• Respect for elders
• Code of politeness, still used in Chinese society today
• Emphasis on education
• Ancestor worship
Contributions of Taoism in forming Chinese culture and values
• Humility
• Simple life and inner peace
• Harmony with nature
Yin/Yang represented opposites for Confucianism and Taoism.
Chinese forms of Buddhism spread throughout Asia.

Ancient Greece
5a - Greece Geography
The physical geography of the Aegean Basin shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization. The expansion of Greek civilization, through trade and colonization, led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the Mediterranean and Black seas.
* How did the mountains, seas, islands, harbors, peninsulas, and straits of the Aegean Basin shape Greek economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization?
Location and place
• Aegean Sea
• Greek peninsula, Europe, Asia Minor
• Mediterranean Sea
• Black Sea, Dardanelles
• Athens, Sparta, Troy
• Macedonia
Economic and social development
• Agriculture (limited arable land)
• Commerce and the spread of Hellenic culture
• Shift from barter to money economy (coins)
Political development
• Mountainous terrain helped and hindered the development of citystates.
• Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life.
• Colonization related to overpopulation and the search for arable land.

5b - Greek Mythology
Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to the culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece. Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology.
* How did mythology help the early Greek civilization explain the natural world and the human condition?
* What impact did Greek mythology have on later civilizations and the contemporary world?
Greek mythology
• Based on polytheistic religion
• Explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events
Greek gods and goddesses
• Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, and Aphrodite
• Symbols and images in Western literature, art, monumental
architecture, and politics

5c - Greek Polis
Classical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation of
modern democracies. Contrasting philosophies of government
divided the Greek city-states of Athens (democracy) and Sparta (oligarchy).
* How did democracy develop in Athens?
* How did Sparta differ from Athens?
Social structure and citizenship in the Greek polis
• Citizens (free adult males) had political rights and the
responsibility of civic participation in government.
• Women and foreigners had no political rights.
• Slaves had no political rights.
• Stages in evolution of Athenian government: Monarchy,
aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
• Tyrants who worked for reform: Draco, Solon
• Origin of democratic principles: Direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizen
• Oligarchy (rule by a small group)
• Rigid social structure
• Militaristic and aggressive society

5d - Persian & Pelopennesian Wars
The Greeks defeated the Persian empire and preserved their political independence. Competition between Sparta and Athens for control of Greece helped cause the Peloponnesian War.
* Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?
* Why was the Peloponnesian War important to the spread of Greek culture?
Importance of Persian Wars (499-449 B.C.)
• Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire.
• Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea.
• Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.
Importance of Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)
• Caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world—Athens and the Delian League v. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League
• Resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power

5e & f - Golden Age
Athenian culture, during the Classic Era, became one of the foundation stones of Western civilization.
* Why was the leadership of Pericles important to the development of Athenian life and Greek culture?
* What were some important contributions of Greek culture to
Western civilization?
Golden Age of Pericles (mostly occurring between the  Persian and  the Peloponnesian Wars)
• Pericles extended democracy; most adult males had equal voice.
• Pericles had Athens rebuilt after destruction in Persian Wars; the Parthenon is an example of this reconstruction.
Contributions of Greek culture to Western civilization
• Drama: Aeschylus, Sophocles
• Poetry: Homer (Iliad and Odyssey)
• History: Herodotus, Thucydides
• Sculpture: Phidias
• Architecture: Types of columns included Doric (Parthenon), Ionian, and Corinthian
• Science: Archimedes, Hippocrates
• Mathematics: Euclid, Pythagoras
• Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

5g - Alexander the Great
The Macedonian conquest of Greece followed the weakening of Greek defenses during the Peloponnesian Wars. Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture and spread Hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire.
* How did the empire of Alexander the Great establish a basis for the spread of Hellenistic culture?
Phillip II, King of Macedon
• Conquered most of Greece
Alexander the Great
• Established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India
• Extended Greek cultural influences
Hellenistic Age
• Blend of Greek and oriental elements
• Spread of Hellenistic culture through trade

Ancient Rome
6a - Rome Geography
The city of Rome, with its central location on the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the entire Mediterranean Basin. The Italian peninsula was protected by
the sea and an arc of mountains, the Alps.
* How was geographic location important to economic, social, and political development of ancient Rome?
Location and place
• Rome—Centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern Mediterranean powers
• Italian Peninsula
• Alps—Protection
• Mediterranean Sea—Protection, sea-borne commerce

6b - Roman Mythology
Roman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art.  Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Roman mythology.
* What was the source of Roman mythology?
* What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations?
Roman mythology
• Based on the Greek polytheistic religion
• Explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events
Roman gods and goddesses
• Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, and Venus
• Symbols and images in literature, art, monumental architecture, and politics

6c - Roman Republic
Although women, most aliens (non-Romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a foundation of modern democracy.
* How did the government of the Roman Republic become more democratic in its decision making?
Social structure in the Roman Republic
• Patricians—Powerful nobility (few in number)
• Plebeians—Majority of population
• Slaves—Not based on race
• Patrician and plebeian men
• Selected foreigners
• Rights and responsibilities of citizenship (taxes, military service)
Features of Democracy
• Representative democracy
• Assemblies
• The Senate
• Consuls
• Laws of Rome codified as Twelve Tables

6d - Punic Wars
After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture.
* Why was Rome able to conquer Carthage and then go on to extend its influence across the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Western Europe?
Punic Wars: Rome v. Carthage (264-146 B.C.)
• Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade.
• Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula.
• Three wars resulted in Roman victory, the destruction of Carthage, and expanded trade and wealth for Rome.
Evolution of the Roman Empire and spread of Roman culture
• Mediterranean basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean)
• Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)

6e & f - Decline of the Roman Republic
The Roman Republic, in the face of changing social and economic conditions, succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime, the Roman Empire.
* Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar?
* How did military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome?
* How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome?
Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic
• Spread of slavery in the agricultural system
• Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment
• Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar
• Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation
The origin and evolution of Imperial Rome
• First triumvirate
• Julius Caesar—Seizure of power, assassination
• Augustus Caesar—Civil war, defeat of Marc Anthony, Rome’s first emperor
• Empire—Unified and enlarged, using imperial authority and the military
• Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors

6g - Pax Romana
Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the Empire.  Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana.
* What was the Pax Romana?
* What was the impact of the Pax Romana on the Roman Empire?
The Pax Romana
• Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule
• Expansion and solidification of Roman Empire, particularly in the Near East (Augustus was Chief Priest and he inspected provinces)
Economic impact of the Pax Romana
• Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade
• Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads
• Promoted prosperity and stability (middle class and lower class now have opportunity and $$)
Social impact of the Pax Romana
• Returned stability to social classes (made laws for non-citizens and citizens the same “innocent until....”
• Increased emphasis on the family
Political impact of the Pax Romana
• Created a civil service
• Developed a uniform rule of law

6h - Christianity
The followers of Jesus spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, bringing it into conflict with Roman polytheism and eventually changing Western civilization.
* How did Christianity become established within the Roman Empire?
* What were the essential beliefs of the early Christian faith?
* How did Christianity spread?
Origins of Christianity
• Had its roots in Judaism
• Was led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah
• Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire
Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Christianity
• Monotheism
• Jesus as both Son and incarnation of God
• Life after death
• New Testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians
• Christian doctrine established by early church councils
Spread of Christianity
• Carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire
• Slowed as a result of persecution by Roman authorities
• Adopted and legalized by Emperor Constantine

6i - Impact of Church on Roman Empire
As the Roman Empire declined in theWest, the Church in Rome grew in importance, membership, and influence.
* What was the impact of the early Church in the late Roman Empire?
Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire
• Church became an example of moral authority.
• Loyalty to the church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor.
• Church became main unifying force of Western Europe.

6j - Rome Contributions
Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Empire. Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome.
* How did Roman achievements influence Western civilization?
Contributions of ancient Rome
• Art/architecture: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
• Technology: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches
• Science: Ptolemy
• Medicine: Emphasis on public health (public baths; public water system; medical schools)
• Language: Latin, Romance languages
• Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid
• Religion: Roman mythology; adoption of Christianity as the
imperial religion
• Law: The principle of “innocent until proven guilty” (from the Twelve Tables)

6k - Roman Empire Decline
Over a 300-year period, the western part of the Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and external problems.
* Why did the Western Roman Empire decline?
Causes for the decline of the Western Roman Empire
• Economy—The cost of defense and devaluation of Roman currency
• Military—Army membership starting to include invaders, resulting in decline of discipline
• Moral decay—People’s loss of faith in Rome and the family
• Political problems—Civil conflict and weak administration
• Invasion—Attacks on borders
Division of Roman Empire
• Move of capital by Constantine from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople
• Survival of Western Roman Empire until 476 A.D., when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor
• Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)

Byzantine Empire & Russia
7a - Constantinople
The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was changed to Constantinople to provide political, economic, and military advantages.
* Why was Constantinople established as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire?
Location of Constantinople
• Protection of the eastern frontier
• Distance from Germanic invasions in the western empire
• Crossroads of trade
• Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordering natural harbor
Role of Constantinople
• Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest
• Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture

7b - Justinian
As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe.  Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity.
* What was the influence of Justinian’s codification of Roman law on the Byzantine Empire and later legal codes?
* What was Justinian’s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy?
Byzantine Emperor Justinian
• Codification of Roman law (impact on European legal codes)
• Reconquest of former Roman territories
• Expansion of trade

7c - Byzantine Culture
Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture.  Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
* What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture?
* How did Greek and Roman culture survive within the Byzantine Empire?
Byzantine achievements in art and architecture
• Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power
• Icons (religious images)
• Mosaics in public and religious structures
• Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church)
Byzantine culture
• Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions
• Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West)
• Greek Orthodox Christianity
• Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries

7d - Church Division
The cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division.
* What factors produced the division within the Christian Church?
Eastern Church
• Centered in Constantinople
• Close to seat of power after Constantinople became capital
• Use of Greek language in the liturgy
Western Church
• Centered in Rome
• Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital
• Use of Latin language in the liturgy
Division between Western and Eastern Churches
• Authority of the Pope eventually accepted in the West
• Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West

7e - Byzantine Influence
Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade.
* Why did the Byzantine Empire have so much influence on religion, culture, and trade in Russia and Eastern Europe?
Influence of Byzantine culture on Eastern Europe and Russia
• Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea
• Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe
• Adoption of Greek alphabet to the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet)
• Church architecture and religious art

Islamic Civilization
8a - Islam
The revelations of Muhammad form the basis of the Islamic religion, a monotheistic faith.  Muhammad and his followers spread Islam.  Islamic traditions and customs developed over centuries and created a distinct Muslim culture.
* Where did the Islamic religion originate?
* Where did it spread?
* What are the beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam?
Origins of Islam
• Muhammad, the Prophet
• Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula: Early Muslim cities
Spread of Islam
• Across Asia and Africa, and into Spain
• Geographic extent of first Muslim empire
Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam
• Monotheism (Allah, Arabic word for “God”)
• Quran (Koran): The word of God
• Five pillars of Islam
• Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophets, including Moses and

8b - Islam Expansion
In the first three centuries after Muhammad’s death, Muslim rule expanded rapidly, overcoming geographic barriers, and weakened political empires. Political unity and the Arabic language facilitated trade and stimulated intellectual activity.
* How did geography influence the rapid expansion of territory under Muslim rule?
* How did political and cultural geography facilitate trade and cultural activity in the early Islamic lands?
Geographic influences on the origin and spread of Islam
• Diffusion along trade routes from Mecca and Medina
• Expansion despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers
• Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia, facilitated by weak Byzantine and Persian empires
Geographic influences on economic, social, and political development
• Political unity of the first Muslim empire was short-lived.
• Arabic language spread with Islam and facilitated trade across Islamic lands.
• Slavery was not based on race.

8c - Islam Influence
Major historical turning points marked the spread and influence of Islamic civilization.
* What were some major historical turning points that marked the spread and influence of Islamic civilization?
Historical turning points
• Sunni-Shi’a division
• Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus
• Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours

8d - Islamic Contributions
Early Islamic civilization was characterized by achievements in
science and the arts that transformed the Islamic world and contributed to world civilization.
* How did Islamic civilization preserve and extend ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian learning?
* What were some contributions of Islamic civilization?
Cultural contributions and achievements
• Architecture (Dome of the Rock)
• Mosaics
• Arabic alphabet
• Universities
• Translation of ancient texts into Arabic
Scientific contributions and achievements
• Arabic numerals (adapted from India), including zero
• Algebra
• Medicine
• Expansion of geographic knowledge

Middle Ages
9a - Roman Catholic Church
The Roman Catholic Church grew in importance after Roman authority declined.  It became the unifying force in western Europe.  During the Middle Ages, the Pope anointed the Holy Roman Emperors, missionaries carried Christianity to the
Germanic tribes, and the Church served the social, political, and religious needs of the people.
* How and why did the Church grow in importance during the Middle Ages?
Foundations of early medieval society
• Classical heritage of Rome
• Christian beliefs
• Customs of Germanic tribes
Influence of the Roman Catholic Church
• Roman authority declined, while church authority grew.
• Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements.
• Missionaries carried Christianity and Latin alphabet to Germanic tribes.
• Pope anointed Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 A.D.
• Parish priests served religious and social needs of the people.

9b - Feudalism
The decline of Roman influence in Western Europe left people with little protection against invasion, so they entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords who promised them
* How did a feudal society develop in Europe during the Middle Ages?
* How did the medieval manor function as a social and economic system?
Invasions shattered Roman protection over the Empire.
Feudal society during the Middle Ages
• Fief
• Vassals
• Serfs
• Feudal obligations
Manorial system during the Middle Ages[UA1]
• Rigid class structure
• Self-sufficient manors

9c - Charlemagne
Frankish kings used military power to expand their territory.
The alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe.
* How did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire?
Age of Charlemagne
• Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe.
• Pope crowned him the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
• Power of the church was established in political life.
• Roman culture was revived and preserved.

9d - Invasion Influence
Invasions by Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe.
* How did invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings influence the development of Europe?
Areas of settlement
• Angles and Saxons came from continental Europe to England
• Magyars came from Central Asia to Hungary
• Vikings came from Scandinavia to Russia, and up and down the Atlantic coast.
Influence of the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings
• Manors with castles provided protection from invaders,
reinforcing the feudal system.
• Invasions disrupted trade, towns declined, and the feudal system was strengthened.

Eastern Hemisphere
10a - Trading Patterns
During the Medieval Period, several major trading routes developed in the Eastern Hemisphere. These trading routes developed among Europe, Africa, and Asia.
* Where were the major trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere from 1000 to 1500 A.D.?
Major trade patterns of the Eastern Hemisphere from 1000 to 1500 A.D.
• Silk roads across Asia to the Mediterranean basin
• Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
• Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
• Northern European links with the Black Sea
• Western European sea and river trade
• South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia

10b - Diffusion of Ideas Through Trade
Regional trade networks and longdistance trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere aided the diffusion and exchange of technology and culture between Europe, Africa, and Asia.
* How did trade facilitate the diffusion of goods and ideas among different cultures?
• Gold from West Africa
• Spices from lands around the Indian Ocean
• Textiles from India, China, the Middle East, and later Europe
• Porcelain from China and Persia
• Paper from China through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western Europe
• New crops from India (e.g., for making sugar)
• Waterwheels and windmills
• Navigation—Compass from China, lateen sail from Indian Ocean
• Spread of religions across the hemisphere
­ Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan
­ Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast Asia
­ Islam into West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia
• Printing and paper money from China

10c - Japan
Japanese cultural development was influenced by proximity to China. Shinto and Buddhism coexisted as religious traditions in the Japanese culture.
* How has Japan’s geography influenced its development?
* How did Chinese culture influence Japan?
* Why were Shinto and Buddhism important to the development of Japanese culture?
Location and place
• Mountainous Japanese archipelago (four main islands)
• Sea of Japan or East Sea between Japan and Asian mainland
• Proximity to China and Korea
Influence of Chinese culture
• Writing
• Architecture
• Buddhism
• Ethnic religion unique to Japan
• Importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors
• State religion; worshipping the emperor
• Coexistence with Buddhism

10d - Africa
African civilizations developed in sub- Saharan west and east Africa. Trade brought important economic, cultural, and religious influences to African civilizations from other parts of
the Eastern Hemisphere. States and empires flourished in Africa
during the medieval period, including Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in west Africa, Axum in east Africa, and Zimbabwe in southern Africa.
* What were the characteristics of civilizations in sub-Saharan Africa during the medieval period?
• Location relative to the Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River
• Christian kingdom
• Location relative to the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and the Indian Ocean coast
• City of “Great Zimbabwe” as capital of a prosperous empire
West African kingdoms
• Location of Ghana, Mali, Songhai empires relative to Niger River and the Sahara
• Importance of gold and salt to trans-Saharan trade
• City of Timbuktu as center of trade and learning
• Role of animism and Islam

Western Hemisphere
11a & b - The America’s
The Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations emerged in South
America, Central America, and Mexico.
* What were the characteristics of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations?
Mayan civilization
• Located in the Mexican and Central American rain forest
• Represented by Chichén Itzá
• Group of city-states ruled by a king
• Economy based on agriculture and trade
• Polytheistic religion—Pyramids
Aztec civilization
• Located in arid valley in central Mexico
• Represented by Tenochtitlan
• Ruled by an emperor
• Economy based on agriculture
• Polytheistic religion, based on warfare—Pyramids
Incan civilization
• Located in the Andes Mountains of South America
• Represented by Machu Picchu
• Ruled by an emperor
• Economy based on high-altitude agriculture
• Polytheistic religion
• Road system
Achievements of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations
• Calendars
• Mathematics
• Writing system

Late Medieval Period
12a - Rise of Nation-States
European monarchies consolidated power and began forming nation-states in the late medieval period.
* How did European nation-states expand their territories and consolidate their power?
• William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest, united most of England.
• Common law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II.
• King John signed the Magna Carta, limiting the King’s power.
• The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define England as a nation.
• Hugh Capet established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France.
• The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define France as a nation.
• Joan of Arc was a unifying factor.
• Ferdinand and Isabella unified the country and expelled Muslim Moors.
• Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere expanded under Philip II.
• Ivan the Great threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian nation.
• Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar.
• The Orthodox Church influenced unification.

12b - Crusades
Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims[UA4].  Mongol armies invaded Russia, Southwest Asia, and China, creating an empire.  Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire.
* What were key events and effects of the Crusades?
* What were the effects of the Mongol invasions?
* What were the effects of the Ottoman invasions of Europe?
Key events of Crusades
• Pope Urban’s speech
• The capture of Jerusalem
• Founding of Crusader states
• Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin
• Sack of Constantinople by western Crusaders
Effects of Crusades
• Weakened the Pope and nobles; strengthened monarchs
• Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East
• Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims
• Weakened the Byzantine Empire
Mongol armies
• Invaded Russia, China and Muslim states in Southwest Asia, destroying cities and countryside
• Created an empire
• Fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, ending the Byzantine Empire
• Became capital of the Ottoman Empire

12c - Black Death
In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (bubonic plague) decimated the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe.
* How did the Black Death alter economic and social institutions in much of Asia and then in Europe?
Impact of the Black Death
• Decline in population
• Scarcity of labor
• Towns freed from feudal obligations
• Decline of church influence
• Disruption of trade

12d - Education
Education was largely confined to the clergy during the Middle Ages. The masses were uneducated, while the nobility was concerned with feudal obligations. Church scholars preserved ancient literature in monasteries in the East and West.
* How did European scholars begin to interpret and value ancient learning?
Church scholars
• Were among the very few who could read and write
• Worked in monasteries
• Translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin
• Made new knowledge in philosophy, medicine, and science
available in Europe
• Laid the foundation for the rise of universities in Europe

13a - Renaissance Beginnings
The Crusades stimulated trade by introducing Europeans to many desirable products.  Trade promoted frequent contacts with the Byzantine and Muslim Empires. New economic institutions developed.
* How did the Crusades stimulate trade between Europe and the Muslim Empire?
* What were the economic foundations of the Renaissance?
Economic effects of the Crusades
• Increased demand for Middle Eastern products
• Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets
• Encouraged the use of credit and banking
Important economic concepts
• Church rule against usury and the banks’ practice of charging interest helped to secularize northern Italy.
• Letters of credit served to expand the supply of money and expedite trade.
• New accounting and bookkeeping practices (use of Arabic numerals) were introduced.

13b - Rise of Italian City-States
Wealth accumulated from European trade with the Middle East led to the rise of Italian city-states. Wealthy merchants were active civic leaders.  Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule.
* How did northern Italian cities benefit from their geographic location?
*How did Italian city-states achieve importance and develop politically?
* What were Machiavelli’s ideas about power?
Florence, Venice, and Genoa
• Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle
Eastern markets
• Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe
• Were initially independent citystates governed as republics
Machiavelli’s The Prince
• An early modern treatise on government
• Supported absolute power of the ruler
• Maintains that the end justifies the means
• Advises that one should do good if possible, but do evil when necessary

13c - Art and Literature
The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified citystates
in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular.
* How did the arts and literature of the Renaissance differ from those of the Middle Ages?
* How did classical knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans foster humanism in the Italian Renaissance?
Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation; Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity.
Artistic and literary creativity
• Leonardo da Vinci—Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
• Michelangelo—Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and David
• Petrarch—Sonnets, humanist scholarship
• Celebrated the individual
• Stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture
• Was supported by wealthy patrons

13d - Impact of Renassaince
With the rise of trade, travel and literacy, the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe. The art and literature changed as people of different cultures adopted Renaissance ideas.
* How did ideas of the Italian Renaissance change as they became adopted in northern Europe?
* Who were important artists and writers of the Northern Renaissance?
Northern Renaissance
• Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas.
• Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with
• The movable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas.
Northern Renaissance writers
• Erasmus—The Praise of Folly (1511)   • Sir Thomas More—Utopia (1516) Northern Renaissance artists portrayed religious and secular subjects.