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Henrico County Public Schools, Virginia
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 Algebra and Functions Data Analysis SOL Review Materials Frequently Asked Questions
The student will design and conduct an experiment/survey. Key concepts include:
a)   sample size;
b)   sampling technique;
c)   controlling sources of bias and experimental error;
d)   data collection; and
e)   data analysis and reporting.
 Essential Knowledge and Skills Compare and contrast controlled experiments and observational studies and the conclusions one may draw from each. Identify biased sampling methods. Select a data collection method appropriate for a given context. Investigate and describe sampling techniques, such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. Determine which sampling technique is best, given a particular context. Plan and conduct an experiment or survey. The experimental design should address control, randomization, and minimization of experimental error. Design a survey instrument. Given a plan for a survey, identify possible sources of bias, and describe ways to reduce bias.  Write a report describing the experiment/survey and the resulting data and analysis. Essential Understandings The value of a sample statistic may vary from sample to sample, even if the simple random samples are taken repeatedly from the population of interest. Poor data collection can lead to misleading and meaningless conclusions. The purpose of sampling is to provide sufficient information so that population characteristics may be inferred. Inherent bias diminishes as sample size increases. Experiments must be carefully designed in order to detect a cause-and-effect relationship between variables. Principles of experimental design include comparison with a control group, randomization, and blindness. The precision, accuracy and reliability of data collection can be analyzed and described.
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