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Henrico County Public Schools, Virginia
Algebra and Functions

Data Analysis

SOL Review Materials
The student will design and conduct an experiment/survey. Key concepts include:
a)   sample size;
b)   sampling technique;
c)   controlling sources of bias and experimental error;
d)   data collection; and
e)   data analysis and reporting.
Essential Knowledge and Skills 
  • Compare and contrast controlled experiments and observational studies and the conclusions one may draw from each.
  • Identify biased sampling methods.
  • Select a data collection method appropriate for a given context.
  • Investigate and describe sampling techniques, such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling.
  • Determine which sampling technique is best, given a particular context.
  • Plan and conduct an experiment or survey. The experimental design should address control, randomization, and minimization of experimental error.
  • Design a survey instrument.
  • Given a plan for a survey, identify possible sources of bias, and describe ways to reduce bias.
  •  Write a report describing the experiment/survey and the resulting data and analysis.
Essential Understandings
  • The value of a sample statistic may vary from sample to sample, even if the simple random samples are taken repeatedly from the population of interest.
  • Poor data collection can lead to misleading and meaningless conclusions.
  • The purpose of sampling is to provide sufficient information so that population characteristics may be inferred.
  • Inherent bias diminishes as sample size increases.
  • Experiments must be carefully designed in order to detect a cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
  • Principles of experimental design include comparison with a control group, randomization, and blindness.
  • The precision, accuracy and reliability of data collection can be analyzed and described.
Vertical Articulation
  1. None
Instructional Materials
  1. AFDA.8ab - Notes: Sample Technique #1 (ppt)
  2. AFDA.8ab - Notes: Sample Technique #2 (ppt)
  3. AFDA.8c - Notes: Bias and Error (ppt)
  4. AFDA.8d - Notes: Collecting Data (ppt)
  5. AFDA.8e - Notes: Data Analysis and Reporting (ppt)
Frederick County Resources
Real World Lessons
Explore Learning
Common Core Standards