Probability and Statistics
Focus: Applications of Statistics and Probability
The student will determine the probability of compound events, using the Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle. 


Essential Knowledge and Skills 
 Compute the number of possible outcomes by using the Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle.
 Determine the probability of a compound event containing no more than 2 events.

Essential Understandings 
 What is the Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle?
The Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle is a computational procedure used to determine the number of possible outcomes of several events.
 What is the role of the Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle in determining the probability of compound events? The Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle is used to determine the number of outcomes of several events. It is the product of the number of outcomes for each event that can be chosen individually.


Vertical Articulation 
 SOL 5.14  make predictions/determine
probability by constructing a sample
space
 SOL 6.16ab  a) compare/contrast dep/indep
events; b) determine probabilities
for dep/indep events
 SOL 8.12  determine probability of
indep/dep events with and without
replacement

Instructional Materials 
 VDOE Enhanced Scope and Sequence Lesson: The Real Meal Deal (PDF)  Computing the number of outcomes, using the Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle (Word)
 Notes: Probability Basics (ppt)
 Notes: Probability (doc)
 Guided Notes and Lesson:
Tree Diagrams and The Fundamental Counting Principle (doc)
 Activity: Probability Rock, Paper, Scissors (doc)
 VDOE Algebra Readiness Curriculum Companion: Exploring Probability (pdf)

Real World Lessons 

Practice 
 Worksheet: Fundamental Counting Principle (doc)
 Worksheet: Probability Review (doc)
 Worksheet: Independent and Dependent Events (pdf)
 Worksheet: Independent and Dependent Events #2 (pdf)
 Worksheet: Independed and Dependent Events #3 (pdf)

SOL Mini Quiz 
 SOL 7.10 Mini Quiz: Probability (pdf)  (doc)

Skills 
 Mathematics Assessment Project:
 A01:Charity Fair  Apprentice  Ann is in charge of a "Lucky Dip" game to raise money for charities. In this task, you use the rules of probability to advise Ann on how to improve the game so that it raises more money.
 A20:Memory Game  Apprentice  In this task, you use probability to find a good strategy for winning a memory game.
 E09:Spinner Bingo  Expert  In this task, you must use math to figure out the best way to play a number bingo game.

Videos 
 YouTube: Simple and Compound Probability
 VirtualNerd: Fundamental Counting Principle
 Vimeo:
Combinatorics: The Fundamental Counting Principle in Use
 PH: Using a list and sample space to find probability
 PH: Using a tree diagram and sample space to find probability

Explore
Learning 
 Compound Independent Events: Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of compound independent events by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.
 Compound Independent and Dependent Events: Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events.
 Spin the Big Wheel! (Probability): Step right up! Spin the big wheel! Each spin can result in no prize, a small prize, or a big prize. The wheel can be spun by 1, 10, or 100 players. Results are recorded on a frequency table or a circle graph. You can also design your own wheel and a sign that describes the probabilities for your wheel.

Websites 
 StudyZone: The Probability of Compound Events

VDOE Interventions 
 VDOE Algebra Readiness Curriculum Companion: Exploring Probability  The lessons focus on creating sample spaces and using the Fundamental (Basic) Counting
Principle. Students calculate experimental probability through games and then calculate the theoretical
probability. (pdf)

Common Core
Standards 
7.SP.8a 
7.SP.8b 
SID.1 
SCP.3 
SCP.5 
