Vocabulary:
judicial activism: when judges affect policies and society by making decisions

judicial review: the power of the courts to declare a law or action of government unconstitutional

Video Clip:

Coming Soon!

More Notes:

The Supreme Court has held the power of judicial review since the landmark court case, Marbury v. Madison in the early 1800's. It made sense to civil rights leaders that the fastest way to get rid of "unjust laws" was to use the courts. Beginning in 1954 with the victory of Brown, civil rights found an ally in the courts.

Extra Links:
Click here to go to the official Brown v. Board of Education Web Site.

Want a more complete look at the Civil Rights movement? Check out this exhibit by the Library of Congress.

Vocabulary:
demise: death or termination

Video Clip:

Brown v. Board of Education

More Notes:
Schools had to be targeted for civil rights! Education provides opportunity- any hopes of equality in society had to begin in the schools!
Extra Links:
This link has the opinion written by Chief Justice Warren.

Vocabulary:
desegregate: end separate facilities for blacks and whites in the south (also integrate)

Video Clip:

The Brown case begins - in Clarendon S.C.

Civil Disobedience at Moton H.S.

More Notes:
You are probably familiar with the story of Linda Brown. She had to walk past white schools, cross busy streets and cross railroad tracks just to get to her separate school. Her story was not unique- this happened across the South during the Jim Crow Era. Black schools were inferior in construction, inferior in supplies and textbooks and inadequately staffed.

There were several school districts being challenged at the same time, including a case in Virginia. The Supreme Court, realizing all these cases had the same argument, placed them together with the Linda Brown case. The NAACP sent a legal team, headed by Thurgood Marshall, to argue and challenge segregation.

The court's decision overturned DECADES of discrimination- schools must integrate "with all reasonable speed" because "separate, by nature, is not equal".

Extra Links:
One of the first true "hot-spots" of school integration came in Little Rock Arkansas. Click this link to learn about "The Crisis at Central High".

More Notes:
Thurgood Marshall worked his entire life to improve injustices suffered by people of all ethnic backgrounds.

Video Clip:

Thurgood Marshall

Extra Links:
Click here to learn more about the extraordinary life of Thurgood Marshall.

More Notes:
Most of "props" for school integration go to Thurgood Marshall- but don't think he could have done it alone! Oliver Hill, an NAACP activist and lawyer led the fight here in Virginia! When he found out that students in Farmville walked out IN PROTEST of their educational conditions, he came to their cause!

Video Clip:

Coming Soon!

Extra Links:
Click here to learn more about Oliver Hill.

This link takes you to more information regarding the student protest in Farmville- a powerful day in Virginia!

More Notes:
From its birth in 1909, the NAACP knew that equality in education was going to be essential to equality in society. In 1954-things seemed to be improving in schools.

Video Clip:

Coming Soon!

Extra Links:

Want to learn more about the NAACP? Here is a link to their web page.

More Notes:
Well, when the courts say you are supposed to do something, then you are supposed to do it. But there is a huge difference between what is supposed to happen and what really happens. Remember that phrase from a couple of pages ago- "with all reasonable speed"? What does that mean? How fast is reasonable? One year or ten? How about twenty?

Check out what happened...

Video Clip:

Opposition to Integration!


Extra Links:
Here is a link to hear the news report that broadcast the announcement of the Brown Decision. How does the speaker feel about the decision?

Vocabulary:
massive resistance: this term describes the fight of white southerners to keep schools segregated

de facto segregation: separation usually due to choice of individuals- or by the fact (like choosing a neighborhood)

Video Clip:

The Crisis at Central High, Little Rock Arkansas

The James Meredith Riot

Do we still have inequality in schools?

More Notes:
Across the South, states tried to stall integration. Citizens took matters into their own hands- refusing to attend public schools which in turn shut down. Private schools did not fall under the Brown Decision, because they did not receive tax dollars.

The suburbs became a place for whites to move, where neighborhood schools would be all white because of the area. Many areas across the country still feel the effects of de facto segregation.

Extra Links:
Click here to learn more about Virginia's Massive Resistance Campaign!

This link is from the Library of Congress, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Brown Decision!

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