Vocabulary:
isolationism: a foreign policy where a country wants to remain neutral with others, only engaging in trade

imperialism: extending a country's power over other territory economically, politically or militaristically

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More Notes:
Foreign Policy had gone through many changes since the beginning of our country. America needed to be isolationist at its beginning- we were too small, poor and weak to have any enemies. The Monroe Doctrine (1824) stated that the U.S. would not get involved in European affairs and that European countries should not cause problems in the Western hemisphere. The U.S. began as part of imperialist efforts. We expanded through Manifest Destiny, and near the end of the 19th Century, we were ready to get rolling again!
Extra Links:
Check this map out to see the extent of imperialism in the world by 1914!

 More Notes:
The U.S. actions changed forever our role as a global power.

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Expansionism

 

 More Notes:
The industrialization of America made our nation wealthy. That economic power allowed us to compete with the more established nations of Europe. By the time the U.S. entered World War 1, our military had grown to be one of the best in the world. Our ability as innovators and workers helped us to link with other nations, creating a trade network that connected the global economy!

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Extra Links:
This link takes you to a site that highlights key events of the Age of Imperialism.

 More Notes:
American Expansion was achieved by previous Presidents: Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase, Monroe's Florida Acquisition, Polk's acquisition of Texas, Oregon and the Mexican Cession, and the purchase of Alaska in 1867. These Presidents shown above extended the United States beyond the continent to establish "colonial-like" power!

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Foreign Policy Under Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson

Extra Links:
Take a look at the Presidential Bio's of each of these guys-

William McKinley

Theodore Roosevelt

William Taft

Vocabulary:
corollary: a statement that goes along with something else

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More Notes:
The U.S. was originally interested in survival, and isolationism seemed to be the best plan to ensure that. But, with industrial power, we came into new needs.

Raw materials to make stuff, markets to sell the stuff, and more land to extend the power were drives for imperialism. Also, the powers of Europe were colonizing in Africa, and America did not want to fall too far behind. We wanted colonies of our own!

Theodore Roosevelt, the great Progressive President, also was a great Imperialist President. He had been a war hero and the Secretary of the Navy. He knew that a nation's power was directly tied to the sea. Roosevelt issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine; the U.S. would not permit European powers from meddling in the Caribbean or Central America. He proclaimed us to be the "police of the Western Hemisphere".

Extra Links:
Click here to review stuff about the Monroe Doctrine.

This link takes a closer look at the Roosevelt Corollary.

Vocabulary:
constable: a policeman

Video Clip:

Big Stick Diplomacy

More Notes:
Roosevelt believed that a large and powerful navy would be a deterrent to any nation from wanting to attack us. After all, you don't mess with someone who can beat you down! That is the essence of the "Big Stick"- be so strong that fear keeps world peace.

The cartoon shows Roosevelt as a policeman- and the people of the world would come to him and he would help them settle their disputes (arbitration). Notice how the artist depicts the size of Roosevelt to the other people... What is he trying to imply?

Extra Links:
Click here to read the origin of Roosevelt's famous quote.

 More Notes:
These were the key reasons for our expansions and our justification. Look at the cartoon above:
The men above are labeled as "Before the United States intervened in behalf of these oppressed people." The men at the bottom are labeled, "After the United States had rescued them from their oppression." Clearly this artist sees that our imperialist efforts were to help out these people... Which of the reasons for expansion is closest to what is depicted on the cartoon? If you guessed cultural superiority, you'd be right!

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Extra Links:
Click here for a better look at the cartoon above!

This link shows a cartoon that opposed expansion.

 More Notes:
Latin America refers to Central and South America, including the Caribbean.

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Vocabulary:
yellow journalism: newspaper coverage that used sensational and exaggerated stories to increase circulation- often ignoring the "facts"

annex: adding new territory to the existing country

protectorate: a country that depends on another for protection and guidance

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The Spanish-American War

This link goes to a site where you can see motion pictures from the Spanish-American War!

More Notes:
Here's how it came about... First of all, we had our eyes on Cuba for quite awhile- it was a colony of Spain. Americans had invested in sugar plantations there, and profits were rolling in. All was "good" until Spain began to cut into these profits under new leadership. Well, we were not about to let that happen, so we wanted to take control. But here's the problem, you just can't go and take someone's stuff- that's stealing. You can't just beat them up to take their stuff, that's just wrong. So, we needed to justify a war- and that's where the Yellow Journalists fit in.

There was a boom in the newspaper industry. The more copies sold, meant the more money made. Exciting stories sold papers- the more bizarre the better. So, abandoning the facts, these journalists reported insane accounts of women being tortured, raped and killed. There were artistic illustrations of the Spanish soldiers feeding Cuban babies to sharks. And of course, the accounts of the Cuban people becoming slaves. Americans were shocked, but not enough to declare war. Finally, an American ship - the U.S. S. Maine - blew up in the harbor of Havana. We naturally blamed Spain, and the war was ON! (by the way, there was no real evidence of attack or sabotage)

The war lasted only a matter of months... Theodore Roosevelt became a war hero when he led the Rough Riders in the charge up San Juan Hill. Roosevelt's own accounts, written in his own book, led to his popularity. The U.S. Navy completely destroyed the Spanish Navy in the battle for the Philippines... American forces overwhelmed Spanish forces on Cuba.

This was a war to free Cuba from Spanish control- so we could not very well annex it. Cuba became a protectorate instead- which we controlled but did not own. We did however gain ownership of the Philippines and other islands in the Pacific!

Extra Links:
"The Crucible of Empire" examines the Spanish - American War.

This link shows a political cartoon that blamed the Spanish for atrocities in Cuba.

Vocabulary:
canal: a man-made waterway that connects two larger bodies of water, used for transportation

Video Clip:

Theodore Roosevelt

Building the Panama Canal

More Notes:
Having two coasts, the U.S. was spread thin when it came to trade and protection by the navy. Theodore Roosevelt was convinced that we could build a canal across Panama which would connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Oceans. This would shorten the distance traveling from coast to coast by boat (for trade), but also the navy could more quickly move around the world (to help Roosevelt's "Big Stick"). The problem was that the area was owned by Colombia, who refused to sell or lease the land to us.

Roosevelt claimed that he would not let some third rate country stand in the way of human progress, so he invited a delegation from Panama to New York to draft a declaration of independence and a new constitution. When those men returned, Roosevelt immediately recognized Panama as a new legitimate country, and therefore Colombia would be challenging America if it tried to reclaim Panama. Of course, we gained the rights to build and operate the canal! (an example of Big Stick Diplomacy)

By the end of the decade, the canal was built! A true modern marvel- it is still in operation today.

Extra Links:
This link takes you to the Panama Canal on-line museum - an excellent resource!

Vocabulary:
civil unrest: when citizens take up arms in protest of the government or policies

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Dollar Diplomacy

More Notes:
This policy is not as threatening as Roosevelt's "Big Stick Diplomacy". Taft reasoned that people are more inclined to be influenced by the opportunity to make money than by fear. Latin America did not have the capital to begin its own progress, so Taft wanted Americans to do it. American businessmen were frightened of violence against them or their factories- so Taft guaranteed that the U.S. forces would be used to guarantee the protection of American property and investments!
Extra Links:
Read more about Taft's Dollar Diplomacy here.

 More Notes:
The United States was not only interested in its "own neighborhood" (the Americas). We also had our eyes on trade with the East- especially China. Expansion in the Pacific Ocean could lead us to their doorstep!

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Vocabulary:
depose: to remove a monarch from power

Video Clip:

Annexation of Hawaii

More Notes:
In the mid-1800's the U.S. took notice of the island nation of Hawaii. It was a relatively peaceful society, and was a good place for ships to stop between China and the United States to trade and re-supply. Interest in Hawaii grew as Americans began to invest in sugar and citrus plantations. "Employing" the local population, much money was made by these Americans who then looked to take more control of the government on the island. As the monarchy opposed the Americanization of the islands, friction mounted. The American businessmen requested that President McKinley urge Congress to annex Hawaii. Since Hawaii was a sovereign nation, it did not seem "right" to do this against the will of the Hawaiian government. So, these Americans seized the Queen, deposed the monarchy and established a new government which again requested annexation. The take over was completed in 1898.

Years later, Hawaii's location (virtually in the center of the Pacific Ocean) added another bonus. It was a perfect place to be the main port for America's Pacific Naval Fleet! Make a mental note of Pearl Harbor... It's in Hawaii.

Extra Links:
Here is another look at the Hawaii Annexation.

You can trace the monarchy of Hawaii here.

More Notes:
The United States' victory over Spain in 1898 gave us some land- including the Philippines. Now, the people of the Philippines did not like being under Spanish rule. They believed that when Spain was defeated, they would become independent- so most Filipinos fought on the side of America during the war. BUT, to their surprise, instead of becoming independent they became Americans. AND, to our surprise, they did NOT WANT to be Americans!

The "cultural superiority complex" that we had at the time just did not allow us to understand what they were thinking... We were Americans- the "good guys"! They fought and fought, and eventually we realized that perhaps independence was better. Ultimately, the Philippines became a protectorate of the United States in the years before World War 2.

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Extra Links:
Here is a timeline that traces the history of the Philippines!

Vocabulary:
sphere of influence: an area of a country that is dominated politically, economically or militaristically by another country

Video Clip:

Open Door Policy

More Notes:
The Chinese Dynasty had grown weak. As the powers of Europe and Asia dominated trade with China, they created spheres of influence. These areas were established in the same principles of mercantilism- only allowing trade with the dominant country and forcing the Chinese who lived there to live under European law. Check out the map above, and notice that the U.S. did not have a sphere-- and we wanted access to these markets!!! We were looking for a trade partner...

Extra Links:
A little more background on Spheres of Influence

More Notes:
By demanding equal trading rights, John Hay (the Secretary of State) was not viewed as militaristic or even an expansionist. An "open door" would allow all nations to trade equally, and would restore Chinese rule.

During our Age of Imperialism, the U.S. made quite a few enemies in the regions that we exerted our influence, from the Pacific to the Caribbean. But, for the most part, we gained a partner and friend in China! (Darn shame they turned "commie" after WW2- we'll get to that later.)

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Extra Links:
Here is some more on the Open Door Policy.
This site explains the "Boxer Rebellion" with links to other stuff.

Vocabulary:
global economy: implies that international trade links the world into one economic system- and that each nation affects the others

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More Notes:
As we depended on each other for materials and markets, the U.S. needed to take more of an interest in the affairs of other countries. Just as the affairs in the Middle East affect our economy through gas prices and inflation today, this was also the same back then as natural resources began to be sold world wide. When America went into isolationist lapses (after World War 1), we were drawn back into far greater problems!
Extra Links:
Here is an old map that shows American Imperialism.

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